The debate surrounding aboriginal American culture has raged across conversations for decades. At the center of the intercontinental American discussion has been the myth that Italian explorer Christopher Columbus discovered the Americas in 1492. Columbus actually first landed in the Bahamas and later took control of the indigenous populations on the islands of Haiti and the Dominican Republic.
The ancestors of Native American tribes were thriving cultures long before Columbus sailed. As nomads these people lived in Alaska more than 12,000 years ago. Across the continent of North America, there were more than 50 million aboriginals, with 10 million of that number living in the United States.
The most important thing when teaching – anything – is ethics, teaching from an ethical position in regards to both the subject matter and the students. When instructors plan and execute their lessons from that worldview, the likelihood of problems within the classroom diminishes. However, the inherent challenges involved in teaching Aboriginal Studies can lead to serious pitfalls.
It all begins with what Mary Louise Pratt refers to as contact zones, or spaces where cultures meet and clash. The context for these contact zones often involves power relations between Western cultures and “the other” and are fraught with colonization, slavery, and the aftermaths of those power relations. Within the United States, there are several contact zones, as the history of the United States consists of colonization of Native American Aboriginal lands and the importation of African slaves. Even after so many years, the tension lives on, and every time a students and their instructor encounter a text, cultural representation, or their history, they are entering the contact zone.
As in so many parts of the world, the history of the interaction between aboriginal peoples and European colonists on the North American continent has been a bloody and complicated one. The violence, injustice, racial prejudice, and deception that ultimately characterized much of this cultural interaction continue to reverberate uncomfortably in the United States and Canada today, all bound up with stark facts of massive disease mortality and large-scale forced relocations—often to completely unfamiliar territory.
Much has been lost of indigenous North American culture: Too many tribes and languages are extinct, and others are so depleted as to be functionally so. Economic and racial inequalities continue to adversely affect aboriginals; many sacred landscapes have been paved over, privatized, or otherwise degraded.
Indigenous Americans have poorer dental health as compared to the rest of the people on the continent. This comes as no surprise, as the native communities are not as exposed to modern heath care as the rest of the country. Some of the most common dental health concerns that plague the Pearly Whytes of the aboriginal community are dental caries, missing teeth, and periodontal disease. While they are normally treatable conditions, they can become quite complicated if left unattended for long.
A report released by the Centre for Native American Youth found that dental health care had not changed much in the last ten years; with 70 percent of pre-school children having cases of untreated teeth decay. The early onset of decay means that they go into adulthood with this condition without the likelihood of having it treated. Quite unfortunately, most of the Native Americans still lack access to proper medical care to this day.
Common Dental Concerns among Aboriginals:
Dental caries also dental decay is the most common among aboriginals. The leading cause of tooth decay is the exposure of teeth to sweet and sticky foods without proper brushing to remove the food particles. The food particles cause decay on the enamel, which can be reversed with appropriate and immediate dental care. If the tooth is left without care for long, dental caries becomes untreatable and may result in even further complications involved inflamed pulp. Once the dental pulp becomes infected, the only choice left for the patient is to have their teeth filled or restored with dental crowns.
The attribute of this disease is poor dental hygiene. When there is a build-up of bacteria in the mouth, they could cause a condition called gingivitis. Gingivitis presents in the form of inflamed, bleeding gums. It is quite mild and completely treatable if action is taken early enough. If no action is taken, it could escalate to periodontitis, which is quite severe and destructive. It is also almost impossible to treat as it eats into the tissue holding the teeth. The aftermath of periodontitis is spaced teeth and loss of bone that supports teeth. Eventually, a person suffering from periodontitis may lose some or all their teeth. It also causes the person to have perennial bad breath.
Health complications that arise from poor dental health:
There is more to dental health than a beautiful smile. If some of the seemingly simple issues are not tackled at their early stages, they exacerbate quite fast into health concerns that cannot be reversed. The Aboriginals have for the longest time, been disadvantaged in this area and are therefore highly exposed to these health risks.
Some of the serious health issues that can result from poor dental health include;
Unchecked periodontal disease can lead to heart disease. What happens, in this case, is that the bacteria from the gums get into the heart arteries and cause them to harden. Atherosclerosis (the hardening of the arteries) causes the arteries to thicken to a point where they can no longer transport blood with ease. It is a known fact that heart disease can be fatal.
Poor dental hygiene leads to a build-up of bacteria, which leads to gingivitis. If left uncontrolled, the bacteria that cause gingivitis multiplies very fast and could enter the brain through the bloodstream. The bacteria are also known to cause Alzheimer’s disease. Traditionally, Alzheimer’s disease affects people in their sunset years. However, the affected aboriginals feel the blunt of this condition sooner.
The connection pneumonia and lung infection to dental health is not obvious at first. However, breathing in bacteria-infested breath for long could lead to infection of the vital organs.
It is quite sad that a fraction of the people in the most powerful nation on Earth is still marginalized in health care. There is more to be done to ensure that every person, regardless of age or race has access to basic dental health care. It is in this regard that First Nations Health Authority has partnered with the Ministry of Health to launch the Healthy Smiles for Life campaign that is geared towards giving aboriginal people a chance, not only to smile and show off their pearly whites for life but to also avert some of the more severe health concerns.
Indigenous cultures around the world have relied on responsible hunting practices to feed, clothe and protect themselves for centuries. Far from the trophy hunting and commercial hunting practiced by immigrant populations, particularly throughout North America and Australia, the hunting culture of aboriginal peoples was based on a more intimate assessment of the relationship between the hunter and the hunted.
The destructive potential nature of hunting was also tempered in aboriginal societies by the belief that some animals were deities, and the conviction that the animal supply was limited and prudence was necessary. Proponents of this ideology would have been thrilled to see the release of the Nikon Prostaff 2, one of the most accurate rifle scopes on the market. The Prostaff 2 is one of the best rifle scopes for your money.
Aboriginal hunting is typically referred to as subsistence hunting by those in the wider culture. This means that the society is dependent upon hunting for the provision of food, shelter, fuel, and clothing, and as well for the preservation of its cultural integrity. Many North American native tribes in the Midwest, particularly the Sioux, are recognized in modern times for their complicated relationship with the bison tribes that roamed the American interior three hundred years ago. Sioux hunters hunted buffalo sparingly, and when a hunt was successful, they used every piece of the animal. Hides were turned into thick fur coats, skins were stretched to become drums, horns became weapons or ceremonial items, and meat was packaged and stored for consumption.
Hunting for subsistence forced hunters to be reasonable with their kill totals — animal populations had to support future generations as well, so over-hunting was a major concern. Commercial hunting changed this viewpoint entirely, and led to the eradication of several species and the overfishing and hunting that is taken for granted today.
Hunting as a Means of Protection
Aboriginal tribes were frequently threatened by predators in all different environments. Tribes in the interior of the country had to worry about wolves, coyotes and foxes, whereas those on the coasts had to concern themselves with snakes, alligators and crocodiles. In order to protect their families, gardens, and domesticated animals, men of the tribe were forced to hunt these predators periodically. Most subsistence hunters used handheld weapons such as boomerangs, bow and arrow, or harpoon, but predator removal teams often resorted to traps, nets and gorges. In accordance with the doctrine of subsistence hunting, these animals were not disposed of but were used — wolf pelts also became jackets, and snakeskin became boots, belts, and cloth.
Hunting as a Means of Cultural Preservation
Many aboriginal peoples view hunting as an escape from modern commercial life. They believe hunting to be the cornerstone of their societies, and this belief is reflected in several colonial-era documents and treaties. For example, in Canada, several first nations societies were granted the right to hunt at will in exchange for ceding lands by treaty. A few of these groups have even attempted to claim the right to dispose of all game within the country’s borders as they see fit. Conflicts over the scope and breadth of the Indian Act continue in Canada today, just as debates about the right of aboriginal peoples to hunt at will continue across the world.
Hunting in modern aboriginal societies is often portrayed as a way to feel some connection to past generations and a different way of life. Although subsistence hunting is falling out of favor among most indigenous groups, hunting as a cultural practice is still as important as it ever was.
In a region filled with grizzly bears, trees lay across a logging road which forms a very specific message, “No Pipelines! No Entry!” This is the result of a dispute between the government of Canada and a First Nations clan remains ongoing about what should happen to the 435-square mile area, each of which claim it as their own. This started in 2009 when the government of Canada started issuing permits for a pipeline corridor which would link the fracking fields of British Columbia and the tar sands of Alberta. Canada’s plan is to become a global energy superpower and is hoping to stake its economic future and legislative agenda on the expansion of its fossil fuel sectors and resource. These pipelines would act as the arteries of a trillion-dollar gas and bitumen industry.
Since June, the chiefs of the Unist’ot’en and supporters have made it almost impossible for the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and TransCanada and Chevron work crews to enter the territory. Even though the pipeline companies have worked around the issue and modified their projects to skirt the Unist’ot’en’s main encampment, they still plan to build through that piece of land that was traditionally used by the clan. The Unist’ot’en remain strong and refuse to accept the prospect so they have formed a barrier with heavy chains, plywood and barbed wire gate, a pickup truck, spotlights and an emergency siren. The clan has transformed their territory into a border that is guarded by a volunteer crew of guards.
In order to gain access, you have to answer a series of five questions administered by clan representative which includes; Who are you? Where are you from? Do you work for industry or government that’s destroying our land? What skills do you bring? And How will your visit benefit the Unist’ot’en? The U.N. Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples inspired this protocol and will continue to monitor their territorial boundaries and will enforce trespassing laws. The only workers who have been granted access to the territory are loggers, tree planters and a guide outfitter since they have instituted this protocol and pipeline contractors have been asked to leave.
Unfortunately for the Unist’ot’en, it is believed that energy companies are gathering information to acquire a court injunction which would allow police to force open the roads so that the pipeline crews can work without interruption. Helicopters that were carrying TransCanada crews were also found entering the territory without permission and were asked to leave, which they complied. The second crew which was escorted by an ex-military pilot and security staff was forced to leave after volunteers grounded their helicopter by staging a sit-in beneath its rotor blades.
The Unist’ot’en clan have supplies airdropped in and they have even made their own pizza made with wild salmon cooked in a wood-fired oven and drank river water. Their kids are playing on a teeter-totter made of 2-by-4’s and they sit around campfires telling stories. While they are doing this, Chevron crews and security teams are moving closer to the territory as they conduct studies and survey for a pipeline right of way. Other than a few helicopters in the distance and the occasional emergency siren, the community continues to stand their ground and live quietly and in peace, for now.
Many people depend on sleep to perform their job and every day tasks with ease. Sleep is very important and a lot of people do not understand this. Sleep plays a huge role when it comes to your physical health. Feeling the way you do in the morning all depends on what happens while you are sleeping. If you are a teenager or a child, sleep is responsible for supporting growth and development. If you are not getting the proper amount of sleep, it can lead to exhaustion, lack of progress, communication, cooperation and so much more. You are going to have problems making decisions, it will affect how you react to certain things in the environment and your mental health. It is like when a baby does not sleep through the night, they are usually cranky the next day. If your toddler does not take a nap, they are most likely going to be cranky or get over tired. Sleeping well improves learning as well whether it is in school, how to do something, and it helps you pay attention. The scary part of not getting enough sleep is that it can cause depression, suicide and cause some to get involved with risk-taking behavior. Sleep not only affects mental health, but also physical health. Sleep helps to repair blood vessels and your heart. Those who constantly get inadequate sleep tend to have an increased risk of heart disease and many other illnesses.
Sleeping plays a vital role in our lives. It changes our moods and helps us to function better. Millions of people suffer with a variety of sleep disorders, diagnosed and undiagnosed. Insomnia is a common sleep disorder that leads people to stay up all night without thinking about sleeping. For those who just plain have trouble falling asleep due to their surroundings, there are quite a few things that can solve that issue. Turning off technology before bed creates a good routine for sleep, especially if you’re a busy entrepreneur.. always on your phone. When you are staring at a light from your screen, your brain thinks that it is time to be awake when it is not. Turn off your technology and you are more likely to fall asleep easier. The sane goes for sugar, don’t have any before bed. Sugar keeps you awake and if you are consuming it before bed, you are going to have issues falling asleep. Unplug yourself from the world, close your eyes and drift off.
Waking up refreshed after a great night of sleeping, you are going to function so much better. Not enough sleep will lead to all kinds of complications in the near and far future. Being grouchy could get you in trouble at work, being tired all the time will affect your decision making and it could potentially hurt someone if you are too tired to drive correctly. Sleep is extremely important in everyday life. A lot of people do not understand just how important it really is. Your mental and physical health is at risk if you are not getting the proper amount of sleep that is needed to function.